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जिन्दगी से प्यार तो साँस की दरकार

Source: 
दैनिक जागरण, 12 नवम्बर 2017

शुद्ध आबोहवा में रहने वाले किसी व्यक्ति की हर अंग-उपांग दूषित वातावरण के व्यक्ति से कहीं ज्यादा स्वस्थ होता है। फेफड़े, हृदय, मस्तिष्क जैसे अंग और प्रतिरोधक क्षमता अशुद्ध हवा में रहने वाले व्यक्ति के मुकाबले कई गुना मजबूत और क्षमतावान होते हैं। इसलिये जिन्दगी से प्यार है तो अपनी आबोहवा को शुद्ध बनाकर साँस लेना शुरू कर दें।

सूक्ष्म कणों का प्रदूषण (पार्टिकल पाल्यूशन Particle Pollution)


ये ठोस और तरल बूँदों के मिश्रण होते हैं। कुछ सूक्ष्म कण सीधे उत्सर्जित किये जाते हैं तो कुछ तमाम तरह के उत्सर्जनों के वातावरण में परस्पर क्रिया द्वारा अस्तित्व में आते हैं। ये तत्व इंसानी स्वास्थ्य के लिये बहुत घातक होते हैं। आकार के लिहाज से इनके दो प्रकार होते हैं।

पीएम 2.5 (pm 2.5)


ऐसे कण जिनका व्यास 2.5 माइक्रोमीटर या इससे कम होता है। ये इतने छोटे होते हैं कि इन्हें केवल इलेक्ट्रॉन सूक्ष्मदर्शी द्वारा ही देखा जा सकता है। इनके प्रमुख उत्सर्जक स्रोत मोटर वाहन, पॉवर प्लांट, लकड़ियों का जलना, जंगल की आग, कृषि उत्पादों को जलाना है।

पीएम 10 (PM 10)


ऐसे सूक्ष्म कण जिनका व्यास 2.5 से लेकर 10 माइक्रोमीटर तक होता है। इन कणों के प्राथमिक स्रोत सड़कों पर वाहनों से उठने वाली धूल, निर्माण कार्य इत्यादि से निकलने वाली धूल है।

दुष्परिणाम (Effects of air pollution)


10 माइक्रोमीटर से कम के सूक्ष्म कण से हृदय और फेफड़ों की बीमारी से मौत तक हो सकती है। सूक्ष्म कणों के प्रदूषण से सर्वाधिक प्रभावित समूह ऐसे लोग होते हैं जिन्हें हृदय या फेफड़ें सम्बन्धी रोग होते रहे हैं।

ओजोन (Pollution by Ozone)


फेफड़ों के रोगों जैसे अस्थमा, क्रोनिक ब्रोंकाइटिस और इंफीसीमा से पीड़ित व्यक्तियों के लिये ओजोन संवेदनशील हो सकती है। ऐसे लोगों के लिये कम स्तर वाला ओजोन प्रदूषण भी गम्भीर साबित हो सकता है। इसके अलावा नियमित रूप से अधिक समय तक बाहर रहने वाले बच्चे किशोर अधिक आयु वाले व्यस्क और सक्रिय लोगों समेत स्वस्थ व्यक्ति को भी नुकसान पहुँच सकता है।

दुष्परिणाम (Effects of Ozone)


ओजोन के असर से श्वसन तंत्र प्रभावित हो सकता है। खाँसी, गले की खराश, गले में जलन, सीने में तनाव या लम्बी साँस लेने पर सीने में दर्द भी महसूस हो सकता है। फेफड़ों के काम करने की क्षमता कम हो जाती है।

स्वास्थ्य पर असर (Health effects of air pollution)


दूषित वायु जब आपके शरीर के अन्दर जाती है तो इसकी शरीर पर प्रतिकूल प्रभाव पड़ता है।

कार्बन मोनोक्साइड (carbon monoxide)


यह एक गंधरहित, रंगरहित गैस है। यह तब पैदा होती है जब ईंधन में मौजूद कार्बन पूरी तरह से जल नहीं पाता है। वाहनों से निकलने वाले धुएँ इस गैस के कुल उत्सर्जन में करीब 75 फीसद भागीदारी निभाते हैं। शहरो में तो यह भागीदारी बढ़कर 95 फीसद हो जाती है।

दुष्परिणाम (Effects of carbon monoxide)


फेफड़ों के माध्यम से यह गैस रक्त परिसंचरण तंत्र में मिल जाती है। ऑक्सीजन के वाहक तत्व हीमोग्लोबीन के साथ मिलती है। विभिन्न अंगों और उतकों तक पहुँचने वाली ऑक्सीजन की मात्रा को बेहद कम कर देती है। लिहाजा कार्डियोवैस्कुलर रोगों से पीड़ित लोगों के लिये यह बहुत खतरनाक साबित होती है। ऐसे लोग इस घातक प्रदूषक की चपेट में आने पर सीने में दर्द महसूस करने लगते हैं।

सल्फर डाइऑक्साइड (Sulfur dioxide)


यह एक रंगहीन क्रियाशील गैस है। सल्फर युक्त कोयले या ईंधन के जलने पर होती है। सामान्य तौर पर सल्फर डाइऑक्साइड की सर्वाधिक मात्रा बड़े औद्योगिक संयंत्रों के पास मिलती है। इसके प्रमुख स्रोत ऊर्जा संयंत्र, रिफाइनरीज, औद्योगिक भट्टियाँ हैं।

दुष्परिणाम (Effects of sulfur dioxide)


यह एक जलन पैदा करने वाली गैस है। अस्थमा पीड़ित कोई व्यक्ति अगर इस गैस से प्रभावित क्षेत्र में शारीरिक क्रिया करता है तो इसकी चपेट में आ सकता है।

बिगड़ती आबोहवा


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