लेखक की और रचनाएं



Background Note on Repair, Renovation & Restoration (RRR) of Water Bodies

जल संसाधन मंत्रालय, भारत सरकार


Water is a prime natural resource, a basic human need and a precious national asset. Water as a resource is indivisible; rainfall, river waters, surface ponds and lakes and ground water are part of a single unit, which needs a holistic and efficient management to ensure their long-term quality and availability.

Agriculture is the main occupation of rural population in India. Irrigation has played a pivotal role in India’s agricultural production and growth. Both at national and regional levels, agricultural growth and overall development closely follow the growth pattern in irrigation. Investment in irrigation sector invariably holds the key to open up the rural economy and provides impulse for overall rural development. For sustenance and prosperity of human beings since long, these water resources played a key role in agricultural production through various system of irrigation. Minor Irrigation (MI) system in India mainly used these water resources in its natural form.

Minor Irrigation (MI) in India is defined as one with a command area of less than 2,000 hectares. There are mainly five types of MI structures that – dug wells, shallow tube wells, deep tube wells, surface lift systems, and surface flow systems. Except the surface flow systems, all others are groundwater structures. Through the ages, these surface flow system or water bodies, either natural or man-made such as lakes, tanks, ponds and similar structures have sustained the Indian agriculture. A water body is a structure where water from ice-melt, streams, springs, rain or drainage of water from residential areas is accumulated or water is stored by diversion from a stream, nala or river.

The traditional water bodies, known by their different names, such as Bhandaras (Maharashtra), phad irrigation (North-western Maharashtra), Khadin and Baolis (Rajasthan), Vav or Vavdi (Gujarat), Ahar Pynes (Bihar), Dung or Jumpois (Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal) and Zing (Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir) have through the ages been providing sustenance to Indian agriculture and have their importance in the overall development and management of water resources in the country. Water bodies are even religiously quite significant. Lakes of India, such as, Pushkar in Rajasthan, Gurudongmar in Sikkim, and others are renowned for their religious importance. The striking beauty of lakes of India, like Vembanad Lake (Kerala), Bhimtal Lake (Uttarakhand), etc has made them favorite haunts for the tourists.

The lakes of Rajasthan add vigor to the colossal forts and palaces. Water Bodies serve as storage reservoirs in the monsoon-dependent areas of the economy where there exist a shorter period of rainfall and a long dry spell with very high deviation of annual rainfall. The small storage tanks are called ponds or bundhis which are mostly community owned. The large storage tanks whose command varies from 20 to 2000 hectares are generally constructed by the government departments or local bodies.

Apart from irrigation, these tanks/ponds & lakes have traditionally played an important role in drinking water supply, hydropower, ecology, tourism, culture and other domestic uses. In 1950-51, the net irrigated area was 20.85 Mha and the gross irrigated area was 22.60 Mha. An appreciation of the urgent need to harness this vital national wealth for increasing agricultural production meant that the national planning process accorded high importance and priority to develop irrigation. The irrigation potential increased from 22.6 Mha in 1950-51 to about 107.2 Mha upto 2010.

As per the 4th MI census (2006-07), over 5 lakh tanks, ponds and storages in India were used for Minor Irrigation Schemes under surface flow and surface lift creating an irrigation potential of about 5.89 Million ha. Out of these, about 0.80 lakh water bodies were not in use causing a loss of 1.95 million hectare irrigation potential either due to under-utilization/ non-utilization. Out of this, 0.74 lakh were temporarily not in use and about 0.24 lakh were permanently not in use. Further, in the India-WRIS portal, total 798908 water bodies of area 0.01 hectare area have been mapped which include both rural and urban areas. Each of the water bodies have been assigned a unique identification number. For water bodies connected with large dams, attribute information is available. The list of the “State –Wise Statistics of Water bodies as per India-WRIS Project” is attached as Annexure-I.

India has a long history of human intervention in the management of water for agriculture, because of the country’s distinctive climate – intense monsoons followed by protracted droughts. The water harvesting structures called “tanks” (earthen bunded small storage reservoirs formed in the natural depressions of the land), indigenously designed by our ancient native rulers and chieftains over the past several centuries with the substantial storage capacity. As the tanks are formed as chains akin to cascades, our tank system has proved to be superior because of the synergized hydrologic efficiency of the linkage between the tanks. As one of the still surviving, man-made and large common property resources of the society, they constitute a basic life support system in the most parts of India. Such marvelous and widespread life supporting traditional tank systems are getting deteriorated in the recent past due to poor maintenance and lack of interest among the users.

Relative importance of some of these Water Bodies has waned due to a number of reasons:

• Shifting away from community based tank system to individual beneficiary oriented ground water dependent system

• Prolonged and continuous neglect of maintenance
• Heavy silting of the tank bed,
• Choked up feeder channels,
• Leaking and weak bund, leaky sluices and dilapidated surplus weirs and ill maintained distribution channels
• Encroachments in the tank bund, foreshore, water-spread and supply channels
• Deforestation and denudation in the catchments areas leading to extinction of water bodies as a whole for housing and urbanization
• Indiscriminate use of tank beds as dumping yards

All these have also contributed to deterioration of the water bodies as a whole.

To revive, restore and rehabilitate the traditional water bodies, The Government of India has launched a Scheme for Repair, Renovation and Restoration (RRR) of water bodies which has multiple objectives like Comprehensive improvement and restoration of water bodies thereby increasing tank storage capacity, Ground Water Recharge, Increased availability of drinking water, Improvement in agriculture/horticulture productivity, Improvement of catchment areas of tank commands, Environmental benefits through improved water use efficiency; by promotion of conjunctive use of surface and ground water, Community participation and self-supporting system for sustainable management for each water body, Capacity Building of communities, in better water management and Development of tourism, cultural activities, etc. by providing Central Grant to State Governments under a Pilot Scheme directly linked to agriculture during the remaining period of Xth Five Year Plan in January 2005. It was visualized that this programme will go in a long way in enhancing water availability in different parts of the country. For preservation and protection of water bodies, Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) has also issued Advisory which has been sent to all the State Governments for protection of urban water bodies.

1. PILOT SCHEME: The scheme, in state sector, had an outlay of Rs. 300 crore with 75% Central Assistance by Government of India and 25% by State Government. The objective of the pilot scheme on water bodies was to restore and augment storage capacities of water bodies and to recover and extend their lost irrigation potential. The water bodies having original irrigation culturable command of 40 hectare to 2000 hectare were eligible for funding under the pilot scheme. A total of 1098 water bodies in 26 districts of 15 states were taken up under Pilot Scheme for which central share of Rs. 197.30 crore was released up to March, 2008. The work in respect of 1085 water bodies was completed. Respective State Govts dropped remaining 13 water bodies. An irrigation potential of 0.78 lakh ha was restored under the Pilot Scheme. State-wise water bodies taken up, central assistance released and completed water bodies under pilot scheme are enclosed at Annexure-II.

Independent evaluation of the Pilot Scheme was undertaken by various organizations, viz., Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar, Water & Land Management & Training and Research Institute (WALAMTARI), Hyderabad; Centre for Water Resources Development and Management (CWRDM), Kerala; Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Hyderabad. Final reports received from Water Technology Centre (WTC), Bhubaneswar and Centre for Water Resources Development & Management (CWRDM), Kerala; Water & Land Management & Training and Research Institute (WALAMTARI), Hyderabad; and National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Hyderabad. These reports have shown that the scheme has resulted in many positive outcomes like increase in storage capacity, increased utilization of water for irrigation, benefits of the scheme percolating to SC/ST families etc.

2. XI PLAN: Based on success of the pilot scheme, Two schemes of RRR, one with domestic support with an outlay of Rs. 1250 crore and other with external assistance with an outlay of Rs. 1500 crore were launched during XIth Plan.

The objectives of both the schemes covered mainly

a) Improvement of catchment areas of water bodies,
b) Command area development,
c) Increase in the capacity of the water body,
d) Ground water recharge,
e) Improvement in agriculture / horticulture productivity,
f) Development of tourism, cultural activities
g) Increased availability of drinking water.

i) Scheme with External Assistance: Under the scheme with loan assistance from the World Bank, GoI takes 25% of the World Bank loan and passes it to the State Government as Central Assistance and 75% of the loan is transferred to the State Government on back to back basis to meet the State share. Under this scheme, the States were allowed to take up the repair, renovation and restoration of water bodies having a minimum of 20 hectare original irrigation culturable command area and upto a maximum of 2000 hectare. The objectives of the scheme cover improvement of catchment areas of water bodies, command area development, increase in the capacity of the water body, ground water recharge, improvement in agriculture / horticulture productivity, development of tourism, cultural activities and increased availability of drinking water. The scheme was carried out with assistance from World Bank. The appraisal process was coordinated by the Department of Economic Affairs.

The World Bank Loan Agreement was signed with Tamil Nadu for US $ 485 Million to restore 5763 water bodies having a CCA of 4 lakh hectares. Loan Agreement with the World Bank was signed with Andhra Pradesh for US $ 189 Million for restoration of 3000 water bodies with a CCA of 2.5 lakh hectares. Loan agreement with the World Bank was signed with Karnataka for restoration of 1224 water bodies having a CCA of 0.52 lakh hectare for assistance of Rs. 268.80 crore and with Odisha for US $ 112 million for 900 water bodies with CCA of 1.2 lakh ha. Thus a total of 10887 water bodies have been taken for restoration under external assistance. The detail of water bodies undertaken is enclosed at Annexure-III. The latest status of the scheme, as received from Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance is enclosed in Annexure-IV.

ii) Scheme with Domestic Support: Under the scheme of domestic support, Central assistance in the form of 90% of the cost of the project cleared by the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the State Government in case of Special Category States, KBK (undivided) districts of Odisha and projects located in drought prone, tribal and naxal affected areas and 25% of cost of the Projects benefiting other areas of Non- Special Category States were given. A total of 3341 water bodies were taken up for restoration in 12 states. A total central grant amounting to Rs. 917.259 crore had been released to the states for completion of works on these water bodies up to 31st March, 2015. Out of 3341, the works on 2222 water bodies have been completed and an irrigation potential of 1.133 lakh ha has been restored. Works on remaining 1116 water bodies are undergoing. More information regarding completion of these water bodies is awaited from respective State Govts. To give impetus to early completion of these water bodies, an amount of Rs 27.0 crore has been released towards schemes of Odisha during 2014-15. However, no requests for release of fund have been received from other states for completion of water bodies undertaken during XI Plan. The scheme was monitored by Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) and MoWR. The details of water bodies with domestic support including grants released, completion, potential planned etc is enclosed at Annexure-V.

3. XII PLAN: The scheme for Repair, Renovation & Restoration of Water Bodies continued during XII Plan and the scheme was approved by the Union Government on 20.9.2013. Accordingly, Guidelines for the implementation of the scheme were issued in October, 2013.

The main objectives of the Scheme are:

(i) Comprehensive improvement and restoration of water bodies thereby increasing tank storage capacity
(ii) Ground Water Recharge
(iii) Increased availability of drinking water
(iv) Improvement in agriculture/horticulture productivity
(v) Improvement of catchment areas of tank commands
(vi) Environmental benefits through improved water use efficiency; by promotion of conjunctive use of surface and ground water.
(vii) Community participation and self-supporting system for sustainable management for each water body
(viii) Capacity Building of communities, in better water management, and
(ix) Development of tourism, cultural activities, etc.

The planned outlay of the scheme is Rs 10,000 crore. The scheme is envisaged to provide central assistance for restoration of about 10,000 water bodies with an earmarked Central outlay of Rs. 6235 crore and respective State share of Rs 3765 crore for the scheme with likely restoration of 6.235 lakh hectare. Out of 10000 water bodies, 9000 water bodies in rural areas and 1000 water bodies in urban areas would be covered.

Eligibility: Rural and Urban Public water bodies having minimum water spread area of 5 hectare and from 2.0 hectare to 10 hectare respectively with B.C. ratio of more than 1.0 will be considered for funding during XII Plan. All water bodies included in the project will be given a Unique Code Number. However, it is envisaged to converge all RRR projects with Integrated Water Management Programme (IWMP) in such a way that the treatment of catchment of water bodies to be restored happens pari-passu with the repair and renovation of water bodies.

In this regard, only those proposals of water bodies where the Integrated Water Management Programme (IWMP) is implemented would be considered for inclusion under the scheme of RRR of water bodies. Further, State Government is to take necessary steps for declaring the water body boundary through a Government order and to ensure removal of encroachments in the water body spread area/water body boundary before submitting the proposal for release of 2nd installment of grant for completion of work on the water body under RRR. Priority will be given to water bodies in villages covered under Saansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY).

Funding Pattern: The central assistance is provided in the form of grant which is 90% of the project cost only in special category states (NE states, Himachal Pradesh, J&K, Uttrakhand and undivided KBK districts of Odisha) as well as projects lying in drought prone area, tribal area, desert prone area and naxal affected areas. In case of non-special category states/areas, the grant will be 25% of the project cost.

Implementation of Scheme: The Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) of water bodies would be prepared and works would be implemented by Water Users’ Association (WUA) / Local Panchayat / A government agency identified by the District Level Implementing Agency (DLIA). The implementation plan of the project will be placed before the Gram Sabha and its Cooperation will be solicited by timely completion of the project. The WUA would also earn revenues by charging for its services from its members and build up a corpus for maintaining and managing the water bodies over time. The Non- Government Organizations (NGOs) may also play a role in implementation, planning and execution of the scheme subject to State Government’s decision. Further, for better synergy with other irrigation works, CWC Field Unit has been assigned to examine/scrutinize the proposals of water bodies submitted by State Govts.

Monitoring: State Government will be responsible to plan various activities envisaged under the scheme, monitor their implementation along with quality of works as per the relevant BIS, provide guidelines to District Level Implementation and Monitoring Committee (DLI&MC) and ensure coordination among all concerned departments/agencies at the State level. Monitoring would be done with the association of the Co-ordination Cell of the State Govt. and standing committee of the Panchayat at the appropriate level which will include maintaining of both physical and financial Progress as well as the outcome. The water bodies under RRR would also be monitored periodically on sample basis by Field Office of Central Water Commission (CWC). Concurrent evaluation is to be done by the State Government themselves by involving independent agencies which may include IIMs and IITs. Impact assessment of the scheme will be done after completion of the scheme by CWC/MoWR, RD & GR.

Present Status: The Empowered Committee of MoWR, RD & GR, constituted for approval and inclusion of project under Scheme of RRR of water bodies, has approved 1057 water bodies of 8 states at an estimated cost of Rs. 830.6659 crore for inclusion under RRR till date. The details of these water bodies are at Annexure-VI. A total grant amounting to Rs. 103.49 crore has been released to the states for taking up works on 898 water bodies in 4 states namely Odisha (760 water bodies), Meghalaya (9 water bodies), Manipur (4 water bodies) and Madhya Pradesh (125 water bodies) under RRR during 2014- 15. Apart from that, an amount of Rs 105.406 crore has been released towards continuing schemes of XI Plan during XII Plan. Total grants released during XII Plan to State Govts are enclosed at Annexure-VII.

इंडिया-डब्ल्यूअारअाईएस प्रोजेक्ट के अंतर्गत राज्य स्तरीय जलाशयों के आंकड़े दसवीं योजना के पायलट प्रोजेक्ट के अधीन जलाशय ग्यारहवीं योजना के अंतर्गत बाहरी सहयोग में शामिल जलाशय Ann.-IV
Details of World Bank assisted Projects on Repair, Renovation and Restoration of Water Bodies

Project 1: Andhra Pradesh and Telangana State Community- Based Tank Management

Project Objectives:

The project seeks to enable selected tank based producers to improve agricultural productivity, and water users associations to manage tank systems effectively.The project will rehabilitate 2,100 tanks out of 95,000 tanks in the united Andhra Pradesh (about 45,000 in AP and 50,000 in Telangana).

In addition, the project
• primarily helps in modernizing these tank systems and improving irrigation efficiency,
• brings in agriculture technologies to improve agriculture productivity and diversity,
• helps in establishing agri-business supply chain including fishery development, and
• undertakes extensive canal rehabilitation work

Key Project Dates:
Effectiveness Date: 27-Jul-2007
Original Closing Date: 31-Dec-2012
Revised Closing Date: 31-Jul-2016

• Institutional Strengthening:(Cost $16.40 Million)
• Minor Irrigation Systems Improvement:(Cost $150.60 Million)
• Agricultural Livelihoods Support Services:(Cost $25.20 Million)
• Project Management:(Cost $12.50 Million)


Implementation Status:

The project continues to show good progress in improving irrigation efficiency and agricultural productivity in the Tank command areas. Consequent upon the state bifurcation, the project budget, the past expenditures (including Bank financing) and the future expenditures to be incurred have been reallocated between Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, and the revised Project Agreement, Legal Agreement and Financial Agreement have been signed on 5 March, 2015 and shared by the Bank with both state governments and Department of Economic Affairs, Government of India.

Progress Indicators
प्रगति संकेतक Project 2: Orissa Community Tank Management Project
Project Objectives:
The project seeks to enable selected tank based producers to improve agricultural productivity, and water user associations to manage tank systems effectively.

• The project will rehabilitate 324 tanks out of 4000 tanks in the state.
• The project has a strong livelihood component.
• Water User Groups are called Pani Panchayats, and 115 Tanks have already been transferred to them.
• Extensive capacity building support is envisaged for Pani Panchayat members on operation and maintenance.

Key Project Dates
Effectiveness Date: 17-Mar-2009
Original Closing Date: 31-Aug-2014
Revised Closing Date: 30-Jun-2016


Institutional Strengthening:(Cost $4.60 Million)
Tank Systems Improvements:(Cost $53.70 M)
Agricultural Livelihoods Support Services:(Cost $9.70 Million)
Project Management:(Cost $5.10 Million)


Implementation Status

Implementation progress and disbursement have increased. Disbursements is 40%. All civil works contracts, covering the project target area of 60,000 hectares are under implementation. Rehabilitation of 95 minor irrigation schemes has been completed.

कृषि उत्पादन में बढ़ोतरी प्रतिशत में कृषि उत्पादन में बढ़ोतरी प्रतिशत में Project 3: Tamil Nadu Irrigation Agriculture Modernization Water-Bodies Restoration Management Project

Project Objectives:

The project seeks to enable selected sub-basin stakeholders to increase irrigated agriculture productivity in a sustainable water resources management framework. Under the project, rehabilitation work in 4931 tanks, 755 anicuts and 8613 km supply channels has been completed.

Key Project Dates
Effectiveness Date:09-Apr-2007
Original Closing Date:31-Mar-2013
Revised Closing Date:30-Jun-2015


(A) Irrigation systems modernization in a sub basin framework:(Cost $282.83 M)
(B) Agricultural Intensification and Diversification:(Cost $166.23 M)
(C) Institutional Modernization for Irrigated Agriculture:(Cost $52.69 M)
(D) Project Management Support:(Cost $8.32 M)
(E) Water Resources Management:(Cost $5.00 M)


Implementation Status

The revised project implementation plan agreed to as part of the 9-month extension of Closing Date to June 30, 2015 has largely been adhered to. Most of the civil works under the Project were completed by March 31, 2015. The work on other aspects of the Project is also going in accordance with the agreed timeframe. Utilization of outlays under Component B have reached 99.8% as of June, 2015. Estimated project savings stand at USD 32 million from the remaining loan funds. The Project has been successful in increasing yields for crops and meeting yield targets for most of them. The Project has also been successful in diversifying to high value crops away from paddy. At the same time, three consecutive years of drought have not allowed the investment in tank rehabilitation to demonstrate its effectiveness in terms of expanding area sown. This in turn has had impact on agricultural income in the sub-basins included in the Project.

लघु सिंचाई क्षेत्र में बढ़ोतरी . Project 4: Karnataka Community- Based Tank Management Project (Closed) (Cr. No.36350 & 36351 and Ln.No.4872)

Project Objectives:

The project aimed to improve the rural livelihoods and reduce poverty through community based approaches for improving and managing selected tank systems. The project objectives also included improved water availability and distribution in the tank systems, exposure to improved agricultural practices and income generation activities for landless farmers.

Key Project Dates:

Effectiveness Date: 8-Jul-2002
Original Closing Date: 31-Jan-2009
Revised Closing Date: 31-Jan-2012

Project Components: The project adopted a programmatic approach to community-based tank management achieved through the following three components:

Component 1: Establishing Enabling Environment for Tank System Development. Establishing a conductive environment and institutional basis for community-based tank management; developing a decision support system for planning, operation & management; and strengthening project coordination and management at all levels.

Component 2: Strengthening Community Development. Human and institutional resource development and strengthening of local institutions; preparation and implementation of safeguard action plans and gender action plans; and assistance for each tank system developed under the project.

Component 3: Undertaking Tank System Improvements. This component includes (i) improving the operational performance of about 3925 tank systems through a menu of physical interventions identified and executed by local users and (ii) facilitating technical training and on-farm demonstrations in water management , agriculture and horticulture development, fisheries, forestry, and fodder production to help ensure that improved water storage and efficiency is translated into increased household incomes.

ऋण वितरण में अग्रगति

Main Achievements:
Self Managed and Sustainable Tank User Groups Established

• The project adopted a holistic approach to rehabilitate, operate and maintain tanks, starting with formations of Tank User Groups (TUGs) and concluding with the handing over of tanks to TUGs.

• By 2012, the project helped establishment of 3,126 TUGs and out of 3925 target tanks, 3710 tanks were covered under the project that are managed by 3126 TUGs and served about 133695 hectare command area. In 207 tanks, the progress had been nil and therefore, they had been dropped.

Benefits for Marginalized Groups:

• The project benefits included improved water availability and distribution in the tank systems, exposure to improved agricultural practices and income generation activities for landless farmers leading to improved livelihoods from targeting the poorest populations in the tank villages.

• The tanks covered under the project serve almost 5,81,000 households. Out of which, the marginalized group such as SC/ST groups represent 39% of TUG membership and 34% in tanks committee. Female members also represent 40% of TUG membership and committees as well.

• The project benefitted 2,13,900 tank command area farmers, 90% of them are small and marginal farmers. Average farm income, at constant 2012 prices, increased by Rs.8,015 per year for an average holding size of 0.75 ha.

• Increased and improved irrigation coverage in the rehabilitated tanks resulted in intensified and diversified irrigated agriculture, generating additional farm employment for 8,050 persons per year.

Tank Rehabilitation and Resulting Agricultural Improvement:

• Tank rehabilitation led to improved water capture and use, leading to improved livelihoods in a command area under the 3710 project tanks for over 1,50,000 ha.

• A study showed that due to project activities, irrigated area increased by 20%, water volume increased by 44%, rise in groundwater levels, extraction of ground water increased by 42%.

• In project tank command areas net income for farmers increased by 76% compared to a 42% for non-project tank farmers.

Increased Income From Project Activities:

• The project directly supported income generating activities, particularly for landless and agriculture laborers. A large proportion of the allocated income generating activities funds were channeled through women’s Self-Help Groups(SHGs) and a large portion were lower cast or tribal, with 99453 beneficiaries.

• The income of members of SHGs improved by 56% in comparison to 41% of nonbeneficiaries.

• Farm based income and employment generation activities generated by the project through improved agriculture in the 3,710 rehabilitated tanks have sustained poverty alleviation impacts for about 1,90,000 rural poor in the villages. This accounts for 17% of the population in the project villages.

• The project has also generated employment and income through rehabilitation investment in 3,710 project tanks, by generating estimated 3.2 million person days of wage employment and wage income of Rs. 16,200 per year per job.

Institutional Strengthening

• The project has a marked impact on the manner in which tanks are managed. A sense of ownership has been created and local leaders have emerged from the village Communities.

• TUGs have become established as the Management Entity for the tank . A Taluka Committee of Taluka level government agencies has been formed in several areas, with a view to supporting federations and TUGs.

Annexure-V Annexure-VI Annexure-VII



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